Buying And Using A Plasma Cutter For The First Time – A Comprehensive Beginners Guide
If you have never owned a plasma cutter before then the whole process of buying a machine and using it for the first time can be a lot to take in. In this guide we will help point out some basic features to look for when purchasing a plasma cutter to insure you get a machine that you will be happy with in the long run. Secondly, we will walk you through the entire process of pulling the machine out of the box to making your first cut safely.
Disclaimer: This guide is for educational purposes only. Please read all documentation and safety requirements for your specific machine before using it.
What Is A Plasma Cutter?
A plasma cutter is a machine that is commonly found in metal fabrication shops that allows the user to cut metal in any way they please. It’s a machine that takes input power (110v or 220v) and processes it though a machine in a way that allows you cut virtually any type of metal using the torch of the machine to make very precise cuts. This machine is so useful that many people compare it to owning a good welder, once you have one you’ll be kicking yourself to not buying one sooner. Plasma cutters give you the ability to look at any piece of metal and cut it to your liking in a very safe manner. The plasma cutter is to metal working as the chainsaw is to cutting down trees. Sure you can use other tools to get the job done, but the plasma cutter just does it so much better.
When Buying A Plasma Cutter Does A Higher Sticker Price Mean A Better Machine?
In the plasma cutter market paying a higher price for a name brand machine translates to a long machine life and great part availability from the manufacture. To be honest, there are some cheap machines out there that can make some very impressive cuts on thick 1/2” mild steel, but the question is how long will they make those cuts until one of the cheaply made components on the machine breaks? If you stick to name brands like Miller, Hypertherm and Lincoln you will have a good experience. The amount of money you spend on a name brand machine will reflect in the machine’s capability to cut thicker metal. The more you spend the more power your machine can handle.
What Is The Best Machine I Can Get For My Money?
We find that Hypertherm and Miller provide the most bang for your buck. Both companies offer plasma cutters that are quality built, have large part availability, and great performance. These are machines that will cost you a bit of money up front, but will pay for themselves in reliability over time.
Here are the three machines that we recommend over all else
Hypertherm Powermax30 XP Building America Edition
Hypertherm Powermax45 20 Foot Lead Package (200-240V)
Miller Spectrum 375 X-TREME Plasma Cutter
Do I Need A Plasma Cutter With A Built In Air Compressor?
Some plasma cutters are made with built in air compressors to supply the machine with air while you cut. These types of machines are made for users who want a mobile machine that can cut in places that don’t have an air compressor available. That being said these machines are normally underpowered and are a lot more expensive. We recommend only picking up one of these machines if you really need that mobility feature. Otherwise steer clear of these and use your extra money to buy a compressor for your shop if you don’t have one.
What Does Pilot Arc Mean? Do I Need It?
Nearly all quality plasma cutters have what is called Pilot Arc. This means you can make a cut with the torch of the plasma cutter without touching the tip of the torch to the metal. Typically when using a Pilot Arc machine you will hold the tip of the torch just barely off the metal which allows for smoother cuts and increases the life of the consumables on your cutting torch. This feature also makes cutting expanded steel a lot easier and smoother.
Non Pilot Arc machines are typically cheaper machines and will require you to touch the torch tip to the piece of metal in order to make a cut. This can really do a number on your consumables and in the long run is not worth the extra couple of bucks saved.
We recommend you only invest your money in a Pilot Arc enabled machine.
What Are Consumables? How Often Will I Have To Replace Them?
Consumables are parts of your plasma cutter’s torch that will wear out over time after performing numerous cuts. There are various types of consumables on your torch such as shields, deflectors, retaining caps, nozzles, electrodes, and swirl rings. Each one of these components has a different life span depending on how you use your machine. Luckily, manufactures sell consumable kits with all the parts you need in one convenient box. You simply pull apart the nozzle of your torch, replace the part that is worn out and get back to work. The disassembly is very simple. These consumable kits include a correct number of each part based on what tends to wear out the fastest. Typically these kits cost you around $125 and will keep the average weekend warrior up and running for about 8-14 months depending on how much they use their machine.
What Safety Equipment Do I Need While Using A Plasma Cutter?
When it comes to working with a plasma cutter it is important to know that this machine can cause serious injury if used incorrectly. However, with basic safety gear and safety rules a plasma cutter is a safe tool to use.
Here is some the safety gear we recommend
- Plasma Helmet for eye and face protection
- Welding beanie to protect your hair from sparks
- Welding jacket to protect your arms and torso
- Welding gloves to protect your hands
- Set of jeans to protect your legs (welding leathers to cover your legs is also a great idea)
- Laced and tied boots to protect your feet from both sparks and dropping pieces of metal (we recommend steel toe that are laced tight to prevent any metal from dropping inside of your boot).
- Fire extinguisher
While cutting metal the majority of all of the sparks and molten metal will be shooting toward to the floor. However, when you first start a cut there is always a chance that metal will spray upwards until the plasma has completely pierced through the piece of metal you are cutting. People generally call this “blow back.” This is usually the case with thicker metal and only happens for a fraction of a second. However, the sparks are still substantial enough to cause burns through your cloths and on your head. This is why safety equipment is very important.
Steel toe boots are also a strong recommendation if you will be cutting heavy sections of metal. You always want to be clear of where the metal will fall after you make your cut to prevent injury and burns. However, as with most tools sometimes other factors distract us from remembering this and accidents do happen. My steel toe boots have saved me a few times from situations like this.
Now I know some of you reading this are blue collar guys who will laugh at half of the things on this list and think “I don’t need all that. Just give me a helmet and some gloves.” Well, that was me when I first started. And guess what after having dripping hot steel fall down my untied boots burning my foot, my damn hair almost catching on fire, holes through 90% of my work shirts from sparks, and metal pieces dropping and smashing my toes I learned that using this safety equipment is worth every penny. So do as you wish, but in my opinion the safety equipment is worth every penny. And remember NEVER cut without eye protection.
What Safety Hazards Do I Need To Be Aware Of Before I Use My Machine?
Flammable items/liquids around your cutting area
Dropping pieces of metal
Handling Metal After It’s Cut
What Equipment Do I Need In My Shop To Run A Plasma Cutter?
Once you have your machine there are a few other tools you’ll need in order to run you machine correctly.
The Correct Power Hookup For Your Machine
Grinder or Wire Wheel
How Do I Make A Cut With My Plasma Cutter?
- Turn on your air compressor and start building air pressure
- Open windows in your shop to help ventilate air
- Clean you surrounding area and make sure there are no fire hazards
- Get you metal positioned in a vice, on sawhorses, or clamped to a table.
- Check to make sure the cut metal will not hit you or your plasma cord when it drops
- Clean the selected cut area with a wire wheel or grinder to bare metal
- Draw your cut line with metal chalk or any other marking device
- Hook the ground clamp of the plasma cutter to the piece of metal that will stay stationary once the cut is made
- Put on your safety equipment
- Plug in your plasma cutter and plug in your air hose
- Double check that your machine is receiving both power and air
- Line up your body to the piece of metal so that you are furthest from the sparks, have a clear view of your cut and are safe from the piece of metal falling once its cut.
- Double check that you can move the plasma torch through the full range of motion of your cut without having to reposition mid cut.
- Flip down your plasma hood
- Position your plasma torch slight off the piece of metal to prevent blowback if possible (this will not be possible if you are starting a cut in the middle of a piece of metal)
- Press the switch or button on your torch and make the cut using a slow smooth range of motion
- Continue the cut until you hear the metal hit the floor
- Let the metal cool before you pick it up off the ground (small pieces of metal tend to be a lot hotter)
When Making A Cut Do I Hold The Torch Directly On The Metal?
This depends on what type of machine you have. Machines that have what is called a Pilot Arc feature are made so that no connection from the tip of your torch to the metal is needed to make a cut. This is a standard feature on almost all plasma cutters and help increase the life of your torch’s consumables. When making a cut with a Pilot Arc Machine hold the tip of the torch just barely off the metal. No huge gap is needed. Any gap ticker than a pencil is too much.
Plasma cutters without the Pilot Arc feature are generally cheap and not worth the money. However, if you are using a non Pilot Arc machine you have to make that connection in order to cut. This can make cutting things like expanded steel very difficult.
What Accessories Do You Recommend?
While accessories are not required for your machine here are a few things you can invest in if you want to really streamline your work.
While not required it is nice to have a cart on casters to move your machine around and store all of your safety equipment on. This also give you a place to wind up your torch cord and ground line.
Torch Line Protector
On our more expensive machines we like to cover our torch line with a protective sleeve that is fire resistant. This helps protect it from sparks and hot pieces of metal that will fall on it from time to time.
A Welding Table
Have a metal welding table that is well built makes for a very nice work space. If possible, having access to all four sides of the table makes cutting large pieces of metal a lot easier. It also makes clamping metal down a lot easier as well.
Straight Edges For Cutting
There are a wide variety of straight edges out there that can be bought for cheap that can be clamped to metal to make your cuts a lot easier. We recommend using a riser on your torch tip and dragging it against the straight edge to make great cuts.
Circle Cutting Hardware
There are a variety of hardware setups made to use on a plasma torch to cut perfect circles. This can be incredibly useful on some projects.
Extra Long Torch Line On Your Machine
We generally like to upgrade the length of our torch line so that we can easily move around the shop with the torch without having to move the machine. This is also a good way for keeping your machine away from the sparks and falling metal. There is nothing worse than running out of cord and constantly having to move your machine around.
I hope this guide is helpful for all of you out there. I know that getting a new tool is exciting and I wanted to make a guide to get people up and running as fast as possible. I personally think a quality plasma cutter is a crucial tool for anyone who is into metal fabrication. They save you a ton of time and really open up your options when it comes to building just about anything metal related. I hope you enjoyed this guide and thank you for reading!